Friday, May 22, 2020

The Tragedy Of Medea And Nora - 2328 Words

Aristotle’s definition of tragedy found in his Poetics, translated by S.H Butcher, is that the genre is â€Å"an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude† (23). The different â€Å"magnitude[s]† of tragedy are explored in both Henrik Ibsen’s and in Euripides’ plays; arguably both are influenced by contrasting circumstances at the time of writing. Often the male is seen as the hero in tragedies, with strength being seen as a masculine trait and weakness as a feminine trait. However, Helene P. Foley argues that â€Å"although many female characters in tragedy do not violate popular norms for female behaviour, those who take action, and especially those who speak and act publicly and in their own interest, represent the†¦show more content†¦The suggestion that he is ‘looking out’ for Medea is ironic as it was his own actions that lead to her feeling deceived by someone that she had done all sh e could to help. There is also a sense that he believes himself to be untouchable, despite what he has done, emphasising that it is Medea that is the one who has done something wrong by expressing her emotions. His seeming arrogance is what, arguably, pushes Medea to the infanticide that she commits at the end of the play because he does not own up to what he has done she feels it only right to punish him in the best way that she seems as fitting, killing his children. Nonetheless, Gamel also argues that â€Å"many tragedies feature strong, transgressive female characters and raise questions about the nature and role of women† (486), in the case of Euripides’ play this â€Å"strong, transgressive female† is Medea. He paints her as an extremely bold and stubborn character that is consumed by powerful grief, and it is this grief that fuels her own actions making her a strong female character. Medea is therefore seen as the tragic heroine of the play; however this idea is a complicated one as she does not fit the standards of a hero being morally good, rather it is argued that she is more of a barbarian. Euripides foreshadows Medea’s barbaric actions when she tells her sons that she wishes they were ‘done for, along with [their] father’ (78), her response to the injustice she feels. This sense of

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Water Exercise Buoyancy Waist Band - 928 Words

This AquaJogger is the 1st water exercise buoyancy waist band. It s also the most well AquaJogger Classicknown, widespread item out of all the aquajogger products available. The belt keeps your body afloat in deep water and shallow water, allowing you to get a total body workout with no swimming experience necessary. Please keep in mind, this isn t a life jacket, and ought to never be utilized as a life jacket. ENTIRE BODY WORKOUT Conditioning your entire body is the AquaJogger Classic s whole purpose. The Flotation Belt uses delicate, adaptable and tough EVA foam to keep your body suspended upright in both shallow and deep water, allowing you the autonomy to move all of your appendages any way you want. The foam puts your body in a distinctive forward position, causing you to use your abs and torso to stay upright. Yet, the main key to the Classic is applying resistance to your exercises that the water provides- you can expand the performance of related exercises done on land to get rid of fat and tone muscle quicker. Movements with the AquaJogger Classic are performed statically (in one spot). Consequently, this water exercise belt is anything but difficult to use with no swimming experience needed in the slightest. Since water is the single resistance working against you, the AquaJogger Classic Flotation Belt offers an awesome opportunity to exercise without causing any wear and tear on the joints for elderly swimmers or anyone suffering from chronic pain for any

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Twilight 20. IMPATIENCE Free Essays

20. IMPATIENCE When I woke up I was confused. My thoughts were hazy, still twisted up in dreams and nightmares; it took me longer than it should have to realize where I was. We will write a custom essay sample on Twilight 20. IMPATIENCE or any similar topic only for you Order Now This room was too bland to belong anywhere but in a hotel. The bedside lamps, bolted to the tables, were a dead giveaway, as were the long drapes made from the same fabric as the bedspread, and the generic watercolor prints on the walls. I tried to remember how I got here, but nothing came at first. I did remember the sleek black car, the glass in the windows darker than that on a limousine. The engine was almost silent, though we’d raced across the black freeways at more than twice the legal speed. And I remembered Alice sitting with me on the dark leather backseat. Somehow, during the long night, my head had ended up against her granite neck. My closeness didn’t seem to bother her at all, and her cool, hard skin was oddly comforting to me. The front of her thin cotton shirt was cold, damp with the tears that streamed from my eyes until, red and sore, they ran dry. Sleep had evaded me; my aching eyes strained open even though the night finally ended and dawn broke over a low peak somewhere in California. The gray light, streaking across the cloudless sky, stung my eyes. But I couldn’t close them; when I did, the images that flashed all too vividly, like still slides behind my lids, were unbearable. Charlie’s broken expression – Edward’s brutal snarl, teeth bared – Rosalie’s resentful glare – the keen-eyed scrutiny of the tracker – the dead look in Edward’s eyes after he kissed me the last time†¦ I couldn’t stand to see them. So I fought against my weariness and the sun rose higher. I was still awake when we came through a shallow mountain pass and the sun, behind us now, reflected off the tiled rooftops of the Valley of the Sun. I didn’t have enough emotion left to be surprised that we’d made a three-day journey in one. I stared blankly at the wide, flat expanse laid out in front of me. Phoenix – the palm trees, the scrubby creosote, the haphazard lines of the intersecting freeways, the green swaths of golf courses and turquoise splotches of swimming pools, all submerged in a thin smog and embraced by the short, rocky ridges that weren’t really big enough to be called mountains. The shadows of the palm trees slanted across the freeway – defined, sharper than I remembered, paler than they should be. Nothing could hide in these shadows. The bright, open freeway seemed benign enough. But I felt no relief, no sense of homecoming. â€Å"Which way to the airport, Bella?† Jasper had asked, and I flinched, though his voice was quite soft and un-alarming. It was the first sound, besides the purr of the car, to break the long night’s silence. â€Å"Stay on the I-ten,† I’d answered automatically. â€Å"We’ll pass right by it.† My brain had worked slowly through the fog of sleep deprivation. â€Å"Are we flying somewhere?† I’d asked Alice. â€Å"No, but it’s better to be close, just in case.† I remembered beginning the loop around Sky Harbor International†¦ but not ending it. I suppose that must have been when I’d fallen asleep. Though, now that I’d chased the memories down, I did have a vague impression of leaving the car – the sun was just falling behind the horizon – my arm draped over Alice’s shoulder and her arm firm around my waist, dragging me along as I stumbled through the warm, dry shadows. I had no memory of this room. I looked at the digital clock on the nightstand. The red numbers claimed it was three o’clock, but they gave no indication if it was night or day. No edge of light escaped the thick curtains, but the room was bright with the light from the lamps. I rose stiffly and staggered to the window, pulling back the drapes. It was dark outside. Three in the morning, then. My room looked out on a deserted section of the freeway and the new long-term parking garage for the airport. It was slightly comforting to be able to pinpoint time and place. I looked down at myself. I was still wearing Esme’s clothes, and they didn’t fit very well at all. I looked around the room, glad when I discovered my duffel bag on top of the low dresser. I was on my way to find new clothes when a light tap on the door made me jump. â€Å"Can I come in?† Alice asked. I took a deep breath. â€Å"Sure.† She walked in, and looked me over cautiously. â€Å"You look like you could sleep longer,† she said. I just shook my head. She drifted silently to the curtains and closed them securely before turning back to me. â€Å"We’ll need to stay inside,† she told me. â€Å"Okay.† My voice was hoarse; it cracked. â€Å"Thirsty?† she asked. I shrugged. â€Å"I’m okay. How about you?† â€Å"Nothing unmanageable.† She smiled. â€Å"I ordered some food for you, it’s in the front room. Edward reminded me that you have to eat a lot more frequently than we do.† I was instantly more alert. â€Å"He called?† â€Å"No,† she said, and watched as my face fell. â€Å"It was before we left.† She took my hand carefully and led me through the door into the living room of the hotel suite. I could hear a low buzz of voices coming from the TV. Jasper sat motionlessly at the desk in the corner, his eyes watching the news with no glimmer of interest. I sat on the floor next to the coffee table, where a tray of food waited, and began picking at it without noticing what I was eating. Alice perched on the arm of the sofa and stared blankly at the TV like Jasper. I ate slowly, watching her, turning now and then to glance quickly at Jasper. It began to dawn on me that they were too still. They never looked away from the screen, though commercials were playing now. I pushed the tray away, my stomach abruptly uneasy. Alice looked down at me. â€Å"What’s wrong, Alice?† I asked. â€Å"Nothing’s wrong.† Her eyes were wide, honest†¦ and I didn’t trust them. â€Å"What do we do now?† â€Å"We wait for Carlisle to call.† â€Å"And should he have called by now?† I could see that I was near the mark. Alice’s eyes flitted from mine to the phone on top of her leather bag and back. â€Å"What does that mean?† My voice quavered, and I fought to control it. â€Å"That he hasn’t called yet?† â€Å"It just means that they don’t have anything to tell us.† But her voice was too even, and the air was harder to breathe. Jasper was suddenly beside Alice, closer to me than usual. â€Å"Bella,† he said in a suspiciously soothing voice. â€Å"You have nothing to worry about. You are completely safe here.† â€Å"I know that.† â€Å"Then why are you frightened?† he asked, confused. He might feel the tenor of my emotions, but he couldn’t read the reasons behind them. â€Å"You heard what Laurent said.† My voice was just a whisper, but I was sure they could hear me. â€Å"He said James was lethal. What if something goes wrong, and they get separated? If something happens to any of them, Carlisle, Emmett†¦ Edward†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I gulped. â€Å"If that wild female hurts Esme†¦Ã¢â‚¬  My voice had grown higher, a note of hysteria beginning to rise in it. â€Å"How could I live with myself when it’s my fault? None of you should be risking yourselves for me -â€Å" â€Å"Bella, Bella, stop,† he interrupted me, his words pouring out so quickly they were hard to understand. â€Å"You’re worrying about all the wrong things, Bella. Trust me on this – none of us are in jeopardy. You are under too much strain as it is; don’t add to it with wholly unnecessary worries. Listen to me!† he ordered, for I had looked away. â€Å"Our family is strong. Our only fear is losing you.† â€Å"But why should you -â€Å" Alice interrupted this time, touching my cheek with her cold fingers. â€Å"It’s been almost a century that Edward’s been alone. Now he’s found you. You can’t see the changes that we see, we who have been with him for so long. Do you think any of us want to look into his eyes for the next hundred years if he loses you?† My guilt slowly subsided as I looked into her dark eyes. But, even as the calm spread over me, I knew I couldn’t trust my feelings with Jasper there. It was a very long day. We stayed in the room. Alice called down to the front desk and asked them to ignore our maid service for now. The windows stayed shut, the TV on, though no one watched it. At regular intervals, food was delivered for me. The silver phone resting on Alice’s bag seemed to grow bigger as the hours passed. My babysitters handled the suspense better than I did. As I fidgeted and paced, they simply grew more still, two statues whose eyes followed me imperceptibly as I moved. I occupied myself with memorizing the room; the striped pattern of the couches, tan, peach, cream, dull gold, and tan again. Sometimes I stared at the abstract prints, randomly finding pictures in the shapes, like I’d found pictures in the clouds as a child. I traced a blue hand, a woman combing her hair, a cat stretching. But when the pale red circle became a staring eye, I looked away. As the afternoon wore on, I went back to bed, simply for something to do. I hoped that by myself in the dark, I could give in to the terrible fears that hovered on the edge of my consciousness, unable to break through under Jasper’s careful supervision. But Alice followed me casually, as if by some coincidence she had grown tired of the front room at the same time. I was beginning to wonder exactly what sort of instructions Edward had given her. I lay across the bed, and she sat, legs folded, next to me. I ignored her at first, suddenly tired enough to sleep. But after a few minutes, the panic that had held off in Jasper’s presence began to make itself known. I gave up on the idea of sleep quickly then, curling up into a small ball, wrapping my arms around my legs. â€Å"Alice?† I asked. â€Å"Yes?† I kept my voice very calm. â€Å"What do you think they’re doing?† â€Å"Carlisle wanted to lead the tracker as far north as possible, wait for him to get close, and then turn and ambush him. Esme and Rosalie were supposed to head west as long as they could keep the female behind them. If she turned around, they were to head back to Forks and keep an eye on your dad. So I imagine things are going well if they can’t call. It means the tracker is close enough that they don’t want him to overhear.† â€Å"And Esme?† â€Å"I think she must be back in Forks. She won’t call if there’s any chance the female will overhear. I expect they’re all just being very careful.† â€Å"Do you think they’re safe, really?† â€Å"Bella, how many times do we have to tell you that there’s no danger to us?† â€Å"Would you tell me the truth, though?† â€Å"Yes. I will always tell you the truth.† Her voice was earnest. I deliberated for a moment, and decided she meant it. â€Å"Tell me then†¦ how do you become a vampire?† My question caught her off guard. She was quiet. I rolled over to look at her, and her expression seemed ambivalent. â€Å"Edward doesn’t want me to tell you that,† she said firmly, but I sensed she didn’t agree. â€Å"That’s not fair. I think I have a right to know.† â€Å"I know.† I looked at her, waiting. She sighed. â€Å"He’ll be extremely angry.† â€Å"It’s none of his business. This is between you and me. Alice, as a friend, I’m begging you.† And we were friends now, somehow – as she must have known we would be all along. She looked at me with her splendid, wise eyes†¦ choosing. â€Å"I’ll tell you the mechanics of it,† she said finally, â€Å"but I don’t remember it myself, and I’ve never done it or seen it done, so keep in mind that I can only tell you the theory.† I waited. â€Å"As predators, we have a glut of weapons in our physical arsenal – much, much more than really necessary. The strength, the speed, the acute senses, not to mention those of us like Edward, Jasper, and I, who have extra senses as well. And then, like a carnivorous flower, we are physically attractive to our prey.† I was very still, remembering how pointedly Edward had demonstrated the same concept for me in the meadow. She smiled a wide, ominous smile. â€Å"We have another fairly superfluous weapon. We’re also venomous,† she said, her teeth glistening. â€Å"The venom doesn’t kill – it’s merely incapacitating. It works slowly, spreading through the bloodstream, so that, once bitten, our prey is in too much physical pain to escape us. Mostly superfluous, as I said. If we’re that close, the prey doesn’t escape. Of course, there are always exceptions. Carlisle, for example.† â€Å"So†¦ if the venom is left to spread†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I murmured. â€Å"It takes a few days for the transformation to be complete, depending on how much venom is in the bloodstream, how close the venom enters to the heart. As long as the heart keeps beating, the poison spreads, healing, changing the body as it moves through it. Eventually the heart stops, and the conversion is finished. But all that time, every minute of it, a victim would be wishing for death.† I shivered. â€Å"It’s not pleasant, you see.† â€Å"Edward said that it was very hard to do†¦ I don’t quite understand,† I said. â€Å"We’re also like sharks in a way. Once we taste the blood, or even smell it for that matter, it becomes very hard to keep from feeding. Sometimes impossible. So you see, to actually bite someone, to taste the blood, it would begin the frenzy. It’s difficult on both sides – the blood-lust on the one hand, the awful pain on the other.† â€Å"Why do you think you don’t remember?† â€Å"I don’t know. For everyone else, the pain of transformation is the sharpest memory they have of their human life. I remember nothing of being human.† Her voice was wistful. We lay silently, wrapped in our individual meditations. The seconds ticked by, and I had almost forgotten her presence, I was so enveloped in my thoughts. Then, without any warning, Alice leaped from the bed, landing lightly on her feet. My head jerked up as I stared at her, startled. â€Å"Something’s changed.† Her voice was urgent, and she wasn’t talking to me anymore. She reached the door at the same time Jasper did. He had obviously heard our conversation and her sudden exclamation. He put his hands on her shoulders and guided her back to the bed, sitting her on the edge. â€Å"What do you see?† he asked intently, staring into her eyes. Her eyes were focused on something very far away. I sat close to her, leaning in to catch her low, quick voice. â€Å"I see a room. It’s long, and there are mirrors everywhere. The floor is wooden. He’s in the room, and he’s waiting. There’s gold†¦ a gold stripe across the mirrors.† â€Å"Where is the room?† â€Å"I don’t know. Something is missing – another decision hasn’t been made yet.† â€Å"How much time?† â€Å"It’s soon. He’ll be in the mirror room today, or maybe tomorrow. It all depends. He’s waiting for something. And he’s in the dark now.† Jasper’s voice was calm, methodical, as he questioned her in a practiced way. â€Å"What is he doing?† â€Å"He’s watching TV†¦ no, he’s running a VCR, in the dark, in another place.† â€Å"Can you see where he is?† â€Å"No, it’s too dark.† â€Å"And the mirror room, what else is there?† â€Å"Just the mirrors, and the gold. It’s a band, around the room. And there’s a black table with a big stereo, and a TV. He’s touching the VCR there, but he doesn’t watch the way he does in the dark room. This is the room where he waits.† Her eyes drifted, then focused on Jasper’s face. â€Å"There’s nothing else?† She shook her head. They looked at each other, motionless. â€Å"What does it mean?† I asked. Neither of them answered for a moment, then Jasper looked at me. â€Å"It means the tracker’s plans have changed. He’s made a decision that will lead him to the mirror room, and the dark room.† â€Å"But we don’t know where those rooms are?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"But we do know that he won’t be in the mountains north of Washington, being hunted. He’ll elude them.† Alice’s voice was bleak. â€Å"Should we call?† I asked. They traded a serious look, undecided. And the phone rang. Alice was across the room before I could lift my head to look at it. She pushed a button and held the phone to her ear, but she didn’t speak first. â€Å"Carlisle,† she breathed. She didn’t seem surprised or relieved, the way I felt. â€Å"Yes,† she said, glancing at me. She listened for a long moment. â€Å"I just saw him.† She described again the vision she’d seen. â€Å"Whatever made him get on that plane†¦ it was leading him to those rooms.† She paused. â€Å"Yes,† Alice said into the phone, and then she spoke to me. â€Å"Bella?† She held the phone out toward me. I ran to it. â€Å"Hello?† I breathed. â€Å"Bella,† Edward said. â€Å"Oh, Edward! I was so worried.† â€Å"Bella,† he sighed in frustration, â€Å"I told you not to worry about anything but yourself.† It was so unbelievably good to hear his voice. I felt the hovering cloud of despair lighten and drift back as he spoke. â€Å"Where are you?† â€Å"We’re outside of Vancouver. Bella, I’m sorry – we lost him. He seems suspicious of us – he’s careful to stay just far enough away that I can’t hear what he’s thinking. But he’s gone now – it looks like he got on a plane. We think he’s heading back to Forks to start over.† I could hear Alice filling in Jasper behind me, her quick words blurring together into a humming noise. â€Å"I know. Alice saw that he got away.† â€Å"You don’t have to worry, though. He won’t find anything to lead him to you. You just have to stay there and wait till we find him again.† â€Å"I’ll be fine. Is Esme with Charlie?† â€Å"Yes – the female has been in town. She went to the house, but while Charlie was at work. She hasn’t gone near him, so don’t be afraid. He’s safe with Esme and Rosalie watching.† â€Å"What is she doing?† â€Å"Probably trying to pick up the trail. She’s been all through the town during the night. Rosalie traced her through the airport, all the roads around town, the school†¦ she’s digging, Bella, but there’s nothing to find.† â€Å"And you’re sure Charlie’s safe?† â€Å"Yes, Esme won’t let him out of her sight. And we’ll be there soon. If the tracker gets anywhere near Forks, we’ll have him.† â€Å"I miss you,† I whispered. â€Å"I know, Bella. Believe me, I know. It’s like you’ve taken half my self away with you.† â€Å"Come and get it, then,† I challenged. â€Å"Soon, as soon as I possibly can. I will make you safe first.† His voice was hard. â€Å"I love you,† I reminded him. â€Å"Could you believe that, despite everything I’ve put you through, I love you, too?† â€Å"Yes, I can, actually.† â€Å"I’ll come for you soon.† â€Å"I’ll be waiting.† As soon as the phone went dead, the cloud of depression began to creep over me again. I turned to give the phone back to Alice and found her and Jasper bent over the table, where Alice was sketching on a piece of hotel stationery. I leaned on the back of the couch, looking over her shoulder. She drew a room: long, rectangular, with a thinner, square section at the back. The wooden planks that made up the floor stretched lengthwise across the room. Down the walls were lines denoting the breaks in the mirrors. And then, wrapping around the walls, waist high, a long band. The band Alice said was gold. â€Å"It’s a ballet studio,† I said, suddenly recognizing the familiar shapes. They looked at me, surprised. â€Å"Do you know this room?† Jasper’s voice sounded calm, but there was an undercurrent of something I couldn’t identify. Alice bent her head to her work, her hand flying across the page now, the shape of an emergency exit taking shape against the back wall, the stereo and TV on a low table by the front right corner. â€Å"It looks like a place I used to go for dance lessons – when I was eight or nine. It was shaped just the same.† I touched the page where the square section jutted out, narrowing the back part of the room. â€Å"That’s where the bathrooms were – the doors were through the other dance floor. But the stereo was here† – I pointed to the left corner – â€Å"it was older, and there wasn’t a TV. There was a window in the waiting room – you would see the room from this perspective if you looked through it.† Alice and Jasper were staring at me. â€Å"Are you sure it’s the same room?† Jasper asked, still calm. â€Å"No, not at all – I suppose most dance studios would look the same – the mirrors, the bar.† I traced my finger along the ballet bar set against the mirrors. â€Å"It’s just the shape that looked familiar.† I touched the door, set in exactly the same place as the one I remembered. â€Å"Would you have any reason to go there now?† Alice asked, breaking my reverie. â€Å"No, I haven’t been there in almost ten years. I was a terrible dancer – they always put me in the back for recitals,† I admitted. â€Å"So there’s no way it could be connected with you?† Alice asked intently. â€Å"No, I don’t even think the same person owns it. I’m sure it’s just another dance studio, somewhere.† â€Å"Where was the studio you went to?† Jasper asked in a casual voice. â€Å"It was just around the corner from my mom’s house. I used to walk there after school†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I said, my voice trailing off. I didn’t miss the look they exchanged. â€Å"Here in Phoenix, then?† His voice was still casual. â€Å"Yes,† I whispered. â€Å"Fifty-eighth Street and Cactus.† We all sat in silence, staring at the drawing. â€Å"Alice, is that phone safe?† â€Å"Yes,† she reassured me. â€Å"The number would just trace back to Washington.† â€Å"Then I can use it to call my mom.† â€Å"I thought she was in Florida.† â€Å"She is – but she’s coming home soon, and she can’t come back to that house while†¦Ã¢â‚¬  My voice trembled. I was thinking about something Edward had said, about the red-haired female at Charlie’s house, at the school, where my records would be. â€Å"How will you reach her?† â€Å"They don’t have a permanent number except at the house – she’s supposed to check her messages regularly.† â€Å"Jasper?† Alice asked. He thought about it. â€Å"I don’t think there’s any way it could hurt – be sure you don’t say where you are, of course.† I reached eagerly for the phone and dialed the familiar number. It rang four times, and then I heard my mom’s breezy voice telling me to leave a message. â€Å"Mom,† I said after the beep, â€Å"it’s me. Listen, I need you to do something. It’s important. As soon as you get this message, call me at this number.† Alice was already at my side, writing the number for me on the bottom of her picture. I read it carefully, twice. â€Å"Please don’t go anywhere until you talk to me. Don’t worry, I’m okay, but I have to talk to you right away, no matter how late you get this call, all right? I love you, Mom. Bye.† I closed my eyes and prayed with all my might that no unforeseen change of plans would bring her home before she got my message. I settled into the sofa, nibbling on a plate of leftover fruit, anticipating a long evening. I thought about calling Charlie, but I wasn’t sure if I should be home by now or not. I concentrated on the news, watching out for stories about Florida, or about spring training – strikes or hurricanes or terrorist attacks – anything that might send them home early. Immortality must grant endless patience. Neither Jasper nor Alice seemed to feel the need to do anything at all. For a while, Alice sketched the vague outline of the dark room from her vision, as much as she could see in the light from the TV. But when she was done, she simply sat, looking at the blank walls with her timeless eyes. Jasper, too, seemed to have no urge to pace, or peek through the curtains, or run screaming out the door, the way I did. I must have fallen asleep on the couch, waiting for the phone to ring again. The touch of Alice’s cold hands woke me briefly as she carried me to the bed, but I was unconscious again before my head hit the pillow. How to cite Twilight 20. IMPATIENCE, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

World War I Essay Example Essay Example

World War I Essay Example Paper World War I Essay Introduction Class tension did not primarily manifest itself in an increase in spontaneous outbreaks of unrest, of collective protests or of violence. Instead it showed itself in union-organized strike movements and in the increasing confrontation, at the level of political decision making process, between emancipatory forces and those defending the status quo.When collective action intensifies, the practicality of things matter more than some rhetorical political and ideological questions of class struggle. The conditions of the German working class can be summed up by two words; ‘deprivation’ and ‘exploitation’. Issues of immediate concern addressed and fought for by the German unions were about ‘bread and butter’ such as wages, hours, working conditions and not that of dissemination of socialist ideas.15 Strikes became synonymous to industrial action, an outlet for the workers to improve and defend their living standards especially concerning wages. The a bove was the scenario with the working class in Germany and how they were mobilized into collective action. With the Great War approaching, mass mobilization took a different turn. As an extension of the mobilization of the German workers was the politicization of the mass at political level. To reiterate, it is argued that in Germany mass mobilization in form of politicization towards the Great War was the result of her domestic and social tension.16 The industrialized and urbanized Germany had led to the establishment of popular elected parliament whereby the monarchy, the army, and the Prussian nobility were wielded political power. Resented by this concentration of power, German working class established socialist movement and held powerful wave of strikes in 1914. World War I Essay Body Paragraphs Germany inherited a great legacy from their political realist leader Otto Von Bismarck who led Germany successfully in his foreign affairs thus silencing the political unrest incited by the liberals at home and this strategy was adopted by the German ruling class. It is further argued, fearing the opposition from the socialist movement to intensify and at the same time wanting to maintain their status quo, ‘German ruling class was willing to gamble on diplomatic victory and even war as the means to rallying the masses to its side and preserving its privileged position’.17 This they hope can silence the working class. It is argued that the seeds of tension between the working class (the radicalized German right-wing that included the petty bourgeois group) and the industrial workers represented by the Social Democratic Party on the Left were already sown in the 1890s.18 This division and disunity within Germany have to be overcome and imperial expansion deemed to be a leg itimate way to unite the nation. Another aspect of politicization of the masses by the Right was in what a modern but strong phrase would describe, â€Å"wag the dog† i.e diverting the Germans’ attention from domestic crisis, with the exception that the war was not fake and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was a good excuse to wage a war and thus precipitated it. Politicization of the mass for total war was also helped by popular press as a brainwashing agent fueling nationalism among European nations that ‘were grouped into alliances that faced each other with ever mounting hostility’.19 At political level among the ruling class, the plan was; A campaign to commit the Government to a so-called Siegfriden in which Germany would use her expected victory to demand a large-scale territorial annexations in both East and West and in the form of overseas colonies. This was regarded as vital not simply in order to reestablish Germany as a world power , but also as a means of diverting pressure for democratic reform at home.The liberals would argue war is justified and as â€Å"the art to conquering at home†.21 This maneuvering of mobilization by the mean of politicization by the German ruling class was successful and marked the triumph of nationalism before and during the interwar period which is a pre-condition for a war to break out. While bureaucratization and technology have vastly extended the state’s capacity for surveillance and repression, mass involvement in the political process has made legitimacy, the consent of the ruled, an increasingly vital condition of the state’s effective operation. Political mobilization as a process has acted to legitimize (or contest) the authority of regimes as well as to articulate interests within them.Fritz Fischer however is of the opinion that Social Darwinism and militarist doctrines had affected Germany to become the leading economic and political power in Europ e and to play a greater role in world politics; to achieve this goal she was willing to go to war.24 Fischer’s critics however argue that Social Darwinism and militarism was not uniquely a German phenomenon, but plague other European nations as well.25 This is agreeable as military race among European powers such France, Britain, Italy and Russia was already at its rapid pace waiting to explode. Perhaps the synthesis of the two arguments; nationalism and Social Darwinism can be used to explain what generated the mass to mobilize in Germany that led to the Great War to break out.Believing that Germany must either grow or die, nationalists pressed the government to build a powerful navy, acquire colonies, gain a much greater share of the world’s markets and expand German interests and influence in Europe. Sometimes these goals were expressed in the language of Social Darwinism: nations are engaged in an eternal struggle for survival and domination.26 Furthermore the mili tant nationalists preached,the special destiny of the German race and advocated German expansion in Europe and overseas. Decisive victories against Austria (1866) and France (1871), the formation of the German Reich, rapid industrialization, and the impressive achievements of German science and scholarship had molded a powerful and dynamic nation. Imbued with great expectations for the future, Germans became increasingly impatient to see the fatherland gain its â€Å"rightful† place in world affairs – an attitude that alarmed non-Germans.27 War had mobilized European working class and turned their allegiance to their fatherland respectively. ‘Even the socialists, who had pledge their loyalty to an international worker’s movement, devoted themselves to their respective nations’.28 Perhaps it can be argued that at this point the celebration or welcoming of war by the German working class they naively saw as an opportunity for a change for they are tir ed of the striking gap between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. On the eve of the War, ‘the workers formed a quite clearly identifiable, excluded and underprivileged group’.29 War was even celebrated, ‘war and its violence seemed to offer an escape from the dull routine of classroom, job and home and from the emptiness, drabness, mediocrity, and pettiness of bourgeois society’. Patriotic and nationalistic sentiments swept across Europe and cemented people into a collectivity ready to commit to the nation. The youth had been indoctrinated with strong nationalist sentiment, beliefs and myths that were designed in state-directed education curriculum to create social cohesion.Amidst the World War I, propaganda machines garnered complete mobilization of the mass and at this time, not only the general German nation is united but also other European nations outside Germany as part of her Central Power allies vis-à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½-vis the Entente Powers are plunged into a psychological warfare.32 Germany and her allies, as the undisputed aggressor was effectively depicted as the bad guy on war posters. In psychological warfare, ‘truth’, ‘ethics’, ‘authority, ‘morality’ have no place in the dictionary of mass propaganda.33 Another mechanism for mass mobilization was the indiscriminate and impersonal general mass conscription that consequently made the line between combatant and civilian blurred, hence the very large scale of casualties in the Great War.34 H.G Wells once argues, mass mobilization legitimizes civilians as targets. Wartime mobilization and Revolution in GermanyIn Germany in 1916, in the midst of the Great War, German males between seventeen and sixty were required to work only for war effort.35 Labor was ranked among soldiers and sailors in their importance as vital resource in World War I and was fully exploited by the state and factory employers in the relentless effort to keep the ar my in the field supplied with bullets, shells, and uniforms. This massive exploitation of workers had plunged Germany and other European countries into another series of workers’ strikes. The scenarios especially were rampant in German industrial cities. Like the situation before the war, issues of great concern were about â€Å"bread and butter† and added by other critical problems between the military and industry (workers) as question such as ‘why they should make sacrifices to save a state which was in no way representative of their interests on account of its undemocratic structure’. In this sense, workers were also concerned about political reforms that could affect them. War was fought and ended with bitter result, German economy was drained, grudges were still held among the general German working class and to a large extent the middle class sectors who were directly or indirectly affected by the war economically. The most significant repercussion of the war had on the workers was the radicalization of certain sections of European labor movements and created factions between labor movements and class tensions.37 This radicalization ultimately changes the course of German mass mobilization. Problems such as, food shortage, inflation, longer working hours, increased governmental regulation of mobility and overtaxing were all factors that served to fuel working class ranging from those in industries, farmers, miners and to bitterly resent the state. Workers demanded that the State intervened more, unable to address to all their demands, German state faced massive unrest and complete anarchy when laws were not obeyed hence the fast disappearing of confidence in the government and in September 1918, a workers assembly at Stuttgart concluded the helplessness of the government.39 With the participations of Proletarian councilmen, returning veterans, fiery socialist orators, collective action was carried out in November 1918 marking a German revolution and the decline of Weimar Republic’s power for a formation of a more egalitarian â€Å"people’s state† or Volkstaat.40 From 1918 until 1920 marked the period of people’s pressure when the Wilhelmine government had to surrender to the populist demand for more effective representation and more say in the government policy and decision making.41 We will write a custom essay sample on World War I Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on World War I Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on World War I Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Thursday, March 19, 2020

How to Convert Celsius and Fahrenheit

How to Convert Celsius and Fahrenheit Most countries around the world measure their weather and temperatures using the relatively simple Celsius scale. But the United States is one of the five remaining countries that use the Fahrenheit scale, so its important for Americans to know how to convert one to the other, especially when traveling or doing scientific research.   Celsius Fahrenheit Conversion Formulas To convert a temperature from Celsius to Fahrenheit, you will take the temperature in Celsius and multiply it by 1.8, then add 32 degrees. So if your Celsius temperature is 50 degrees, the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature is 122 degrees: (50 degrees Celsius x 1.8) 32 122 degrees Fahrenheit If you need to convert a temperature in Fahrenheit, simply reverse the process: subtract 32, then divide by 1.8. So 122 degrees Fahrenheit is still 50 degrees Celsius: (122 degrees Fahrenheit - 32)  Ãƒ · 1.8 50 degrees Celsius Its Not Just About Conversions While its useful to know how to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit and vice versa, its also important to understand the differences between the two scales. First, its important to clarify the difference between Celsius and centigrade, since theyre not quite the same thing.   A third international unit of temperature measurement, Kelvin, is widely used in scientific applications. But for everyday and household temperatures (and your local meteorologists weather report), youre most likely to use Fahrenheit in the U.S. and Celsius most other places around the world.   Difference Between Celsius and Centigrade Some people use the terms Celsius and centigrade interchangeably, but its not completely accurate to do so.  The Celsius scale is a type of centigrade scale, meaning its endpoints are separated by 100 degrees. The word is derived from the Latin words centum, which means hundred, and gradus, which means scales or steps. Put simply, Celsius is the proper name of a centigrade scale of temperature. As devised by Swedish astronomy professor Anders Celsius, this particular  centigrade scale had  100  degrees occurring at the freezing point of water and 0 degrees as waters boiling point. This was reversed after his death by fellow Swede and botanist Carlous Linneaus to be more easily understood. The centigrade scale Celsius created was renamed for him after it was redefined to be more precise  by the General Conference of Weights and Measures in the 1950s.   There is one point on both scales where Fahrenheit and Celsius temperatures match, which is minus 40 degrees Celsius and minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit.   Invention of the Fahrenheit Temperature Scale The first mercury thermometer was invented by German scientist Daniel Fahrenheit in 1714. His scale divides the freezing and boiling points of water into 180 degrees, with 32 degrees as waters freezing point, and 212 as its boiling point. On Fahrenheits scale, 0 degrees was determined as the temperature of a brine solution. He based the scale on the average temperature of the human body, which he originally calculated at 100 degrees (its since been adjusted to 98.6 degrees). Fahrenheit was the standard unit of measure in most countries until the 1960s and 1970s when it was replaced with the Celsius scale in a widespread conversion to the more useful metric system. But in addition to the U.S. and its territories,  Fahrenheit is still used in  the Bahamas, Belize, and the Cayman Islands for most temperature measurements.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Synonymy Definition and Examples

Synonymy Definition and Examples Pronunciation: si-NON-eh-mi Definition: The semantic qualities or sense relations that exist between words (lexemes) with closely related meanings (i.e., synonyms). Plural: synonymies. Contrast with antonymy. Synonymy may also refer to the study of synonyms or to a list of synonyms. In the words of Dagmar Divjak, near-synonymy (the relationship between different lexemes that express similar meanings) is a fundamental phenomenon that influences the structure of our lexical knowledge (Structuring the Lexicon, 2010). Examples and Observations The phenomenon of synonymy is a central interest for both the semanticist and the language learner. For the former, synonymy is an important member of the theoretical set of logical relations existing in language. For the latter, there is a good deal of evidence to suggest that vocabulary is often best acquired by analogy, in other words, remembered as being similar in meaning to previously acquired forms... In addition, what we might term definition through synonym is a central feature of most dictionary organisation (Ilson 1991: 294-6). For motives of stylistic variation, non-native learners and translators have a pressing need to find lexical alternatives to express a particular concept, especially in writing. Harvey Yuill (1994) found that searches for synonyms accounted for over 10 percent of dictionary consultations when learners were engaged in a writing task. However, given the rarity of absolute synonymy, learners also need to know which of the particular synonyms given by dictionaries and thesauruses is the most suitable for any given context.(Alan Partington, Patterns and Meanings: Using Corpora for English Language Research and Teaching. John Benjamins, 1998)​ The Productivity of Synonymy - The productivity of synonymy is clearly observable. If we invent a new word that represents (to some extent) the same thing that an existing word in the language represents, then the new word is automatically a synonym of the older word. For example, every time a new slang term meaning automobile is invented, a synonym relation is predicted for the new slang term (say, ride) and the standard and slang terms that already exist (car, auto, wheels, etc.). Ride does not need to be inducted as a member of the synonym set- no one has to say ride means the same thing as car in order for the synonym relation to be understood. All that must happen is that ride must be used and understood to mean the same thing as car- as in My new ride is a Honda.(M. Lynne Murphy, Semantic Relations and the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press, 2003)Synonymy, Near-Synonymy, and Degrees of Formality - It should be noted that the idea of sameness of meaning used in discussing synon ymy is not necessarily total sameness. There are many occasions when one word is appropriate in a sentence, but its synonym would be odd. For example, whereas the word answer fits in this sentence: Cathy had only one answer correct on the test, its near-synonym, reply, would sound odd. Synonymous forms may also differ in terms of formality. The sentence My father purchased a large automobile seems much more serious than the following casual version, with four synonymous replacements: My dad bought a big car.(George Yule, The Study of Language, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 1996) Synonymy and Polysemy - What defines synonymy is precisely the possibility of substituting words in given contexts without altering the objective and affective meaning. Inversely, the irreducible character of the phenomenon of synonymy is confirmed by the possibility of providing synonyms for the various acceptations of a single word (this is the commutative test of polysemy itself): the word review is the synonym sometimes of parade, sometimes of magazine. In every case a community of meaning is at the bottom of synonymy. Because it is an irreducible phenomenon, synonymy can play two roles at once: offering a stylistic resource for fine distinctions (peak instead of summit, minuscule for minute, etc.), and indeed for emphasis, for reinforcement, for piling-on, as in the mannerist style of [French poet Charles] Pà ©guy; and providing a test of commutativity for polysemy. Identity and difference can be accentuated in turn in the notion of partial semantic identity.So polysemy is defi ned initially as the inverse of synonymy, as [French philologist Michel] Brà ©al was the first to observe: now not several names for one sense (synonymy), but several senses for one name (polysemy).(Paul Ricoeur, The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-Disciplinary Studies in the Creation of Meaning in Language, 1975; translated by Robert Czerny. University of Toronto Press, 1977)

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Effective Cross-Cultural Management in the UK Company Essay - 2

Effective Cross-Cultural Management in the UK Company - Essay Example According to Hennart and Zeng (2002), amalgamation of organizational structure, team dynamics and business infrastructure has gone through a regime shift, which has been witnessed over last 20 years primarily because of a globalized world. Due to a strongly interconnected world, frequency as well as amount of knowledge and information transmission across borders has increased to a great extent (Hofstede and McCrae, 2004). Considering the current intensity of competition and business environment, it is noticed that companies headquartered in a particular country are seeking entry into international field by means of business expansion on a global magnitude. Johnson, Lenartowicz and Apud (2006) suggested that the underlying motive behind implementation of such a strategy is to gain an advantageous position. In effect, companies gain access to a larger base of customer and are able to amplify growth rate (Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004). Empirical research scholars such as, Moran, Harris and Moran (2007) and Morley and Robins (2001), provide a different view point. According to the authors, companies implement global expansion strategies in order to spread risk evenly. Such strategies offer companies with the opportunity to diversify their business portfolio, thereby setting up compound earning sources and learning foreign cultures. The fundamental motive behind undergoing such a learning process is to support innovation.